Cannabis Booklet References


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  • Cannabis category: Cannabinoids (no date) Cannabis – Drug and Alcohol Information and Support in Ireland – Available at:
  • Laucks, P. and Salzman, G.A. (2020) The dangers of vaping, Missouri medicine. Available at:
  • Synthetic cannabinoids category: Cannabinoids new psychoactive substances (no date) Synthetic Cannabinoids – Drug and Alcohol Information and Support in Ireland – Available at:
  • Dougherty, D.M.; Mathias, C.W.; Dawes, M.A.; Furr, R.M.; Charles, N.E.; Liguori, A.; Shannon, E.E.; Acheson, A. Impulsivity, attention, memory, and decision-making among adolescent marijuana users. Psychopharmacology 2013, 226, 307–319.
  • Lac A, Luk JW. Testing the Amotivational Syndrome: Marijuana Use Longitudinally Predicts Lower Self-Efficacy Even After Controlling for Demographics, Personality, and Alcohol and Cigarette Use. Prevention Science. 2018;19(2):117–126.
  • van Hell HH, Vink M, Ossewaarde L, Jager G, Kahn RS, Ramsey NF. Chronic effects of cannabis use on the human reward system: an fMRI study. European Neuropsychopharmacology: The Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;20(3):153–163.
  • Broyd, S.J.; Van Hell, H.H.; Beale, C.; Yücel, M.; Solowij, N. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cannabinoids on Human Cognition—A Systematic Review. Biol. Psychiatry 2016, 79, 557–567.
  • Morin, J.F.G.; Afzali, M.H.; Bourque, J.; Stewart, S.H.; Séguin, J.R.; O’Leary-Barrett, M.; Conrod, P.J. A population-based analysis of the relationship between substance use and adolescent cognitive development. Am. J. Psychiatry 2019, 176, 98–106.
  • Hall, W. (2015). What has research over the past two decades revealed about the adverse health effects of recreational cannabis use? Addiction, 110(1), 19–35.
  • Brook, D.W., Brook, J.S., Zhang, C., Cohen, P., & Whiteman, M. (2002). Drug use and the risk of major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence, and substance use disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(11), 1039–1044.
  • Medina, K.L.; Tapert, S.F. Effetti cronici dell’uso di marijuana sul cervello e sulle capacità cognitive dell’adolescente. In Cannabis e Danni alla Salute—Aspetti Tossicologici, Neuropsichici, Medici, Sociali e Linee di Indirizzo per la Prevenzione e il Trattamento; Serpelloni, G., Diana, M., Gomma, M., Rimondo, C., Eds.; (a cura di) Cierre Grafica: Verona, Italy, 2011.
  • Lynskey MT, Heath AC, Bucholz KK et al (2003) Escalation of drug use in early-onset cannabis users vs co-twin controls. JAMA 289:427–433.
  • Cousijn J, Luijten M, Feldstein Ewing SW (2018) Adolescent resilience to addiction: a social plasticity hypothesis. Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2:69–78.
  • Anthony, J.C., Warner, L.A., & Kessler, R.C. (1994). Comparative epidemiology of dependence on tobacco, alcohol, controlled substances, and inhalants: Basic findings from the National Comorbidity Survey. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2(3), 244–268. Budney, A.J., & Hughes, J.R. (2006). The cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 19(3), 233–238.
  • Meier MH, Caspi A, Ambler A, Harrington H, Houts R, Keefe RS, et al. Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. (2012) 109(40):E2657–64. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1206820109
  • Jacobsen, L.K.; Mencl, W.E.; Westerveld, M.; Pugh, K.R. Impact of Cannabis Use on Brain Function in Adolescents. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2004, 1021, 384–390.
  • Pope, H.G.; Yurgelun-Todd, D. The residual cognitive effects of heavy marijuana use in college students. JAMA 1996, 275, 521–527
  • Jager, G.; Van Hell, H.H.; De Win, M.M.L.; Kahn, R.S.; Brink, W.V.D.; Van Ree, J.M.; Ramsey, N.F. Effects of frequent cannabis use on hippocampal activity during an associative memory task. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007, 17, 289–297.
  • Solowij, N.; Stephens, R.S.; Roffman, R.A.; Babor, T.; Kadden, R.; Miller, M.; Christiansen, K.; McRee, B.; Vendetti, J. Cognitive Functioning of Long-term Heavy Cannabis Users Seeking Treatment. JAMA 2002, 287, 1123–1131.
  • Arseneault L, Cannon M, Poulton R, Murray R, Caspi A, Moffitt TE. Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study. BMJ (2002) 325(7374):1212–3. doi: 10.1136/bmj.325.7374.1212

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Other studies referenced

  • Ellgren M, Artmann A, Tkalych O, Gupta A, Hansen HS, Hansen SH, et al. Dynamic changes of the endogenous cannabinoid and opioid mesocorticolimbic systems during adolescence: THC effects. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol (2008) 18(11):826–34. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2008.06.009
  • Schoeler T, Theobald D, Pingault JB, Farrington DP, Coid JW, Bhattacharyya S. Developmental sensitivity to cannabis use patterns and risk for major depressive disorder in mid-life: findings from 40 years of follow-up. psychol Med (2018) 48(13):1–8. doi: 10.1017/S0033291717003658
  • Andréasson, S., Engström, A., Allebeck, P., & Rydberg, U. (1987). Cannabis and schizophrenia: A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts. The Lancet, 330(8574), 1483–1486.
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